Research Database

How People Achieve

A 10 page paper. How do people achieve? This is the topic of this essay. Several theories are reviewed and discussed. These include goal theory, expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy, goal and expectancy-value theory combined, Vroom's expectancy theory, Alderfer' Existence, Relatedness, and Growth theory, McClelland's theory, and others. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

Expectancy Theory - Tutorial

This 10 page paper explains and discusses the expectancy theory of motivation. The major premises of valence, expectancy and instrumentality are explained. Vroom noted two prerequisites for effort to occur and these are explained. Other researchers have offered formulas to demonstrate how the basic components in expectancy theory relate to each other in order to result in motivation force. Three such formulas are included in the essay. The integration of expectancy theory with reinforcement theory is discussed as are the different theories that use expectancy theory as a basis or that incorporate the tenets. The essay concludes with an example of how expectancy theory was used in one small company. Tutorial comments are sprinkled throughout the essay. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

Comparing Expectancy Theory and Goal Setting Theory

This 4 page paper compares and contrasts the two processes of motivation; expectancy theory and goal setting theory, looking at the way in which they are perceived as operating and how they can explain motivation, as well as be utilized to increase levels of employee motivation. The bibliography cites 3 sources.


This 23-page paper examines certain theories about organizational behavior. Models examined in this paper included achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, competence motivation and the expectancy and equity models. The paper also uses some of these models in business examples. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Management Theory Study Questions

A 5 page paper answering 4 discussion questions addressing topics of (1) the importance of an air of confidence; (2) approaches to reducing employee absenteeism; (3) qualities of effective discipline; and (4) expectancy theory and how expectancy, instrumentality and valence contribute to enhancing employee motivation. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Motivation Literature Review

This 18 page paper is a comprehensive literature review and the theory of motivation, looking at the different theories and approaches been developed, including Taylorism and scientific management, theories of Mayo, Maslow and Hertzberg and the human relations school for, as well as the concept of expectancy theory, goal setting theory and equity theory. The bibliography cites 20 sources.

Leadership And Motivation Models

A 9 page paper that begins by tracing the evolution of leadership theories and motivation theories. The essay explains and discusses two leadership theories: situational and servant, and it explains and discusses two motivational theories, Maslow's Hierarchy and Vroom's Expectancy model. Kolb's learning model is also briefly discussed. The writer comments the theories can all complement each other. There are also a few comments directly related to military leadership. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

Motivation In The Workplace

A 5 page essay discussing different theories of motivation including: Needs Satisfaction Hierarchy, Theory X and Y, and Expectancy Theory. The theories are applied to the workplace, in general, and a hypothetical beauty supply company, in particular. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Negotiating Salary

This 11 page paper discusses negotiation theory and practice along with tips. A scenario is presented of a woman requesting a raise from a male supervisor. Discussions include cognitive consistency theory, cognitive dissonance theory, expectancy violation theory, language expectancy theory, social influence model, social judgment theory and persuasive argument theory. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

Motivation In The Workplace

A 3 page paper. This essay focuses on two motivation theories, Hull's drive reduction theory and Vroom's expectancy theory. Maslow and Skinner are mentioned for comparison. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

Motivation At Work

A 4 page paper that discusses several issues. The first issue is motivation theory and if Maslow’s theory is enough to explain motivation. Next, the neuroscientist’s perspective on emotions. Stress is different in men and women and why. A sense of well-being is discussed as is Schachter and Singer’s theory of motivation. Bibliography lists 6 sources.


This 5-page paper discusses motivational concepts, such as intrinsic motivation, self-determination theory and behavioral theories. Also discussed is motivation in the workplace. Bibliography lists 2 sources.


This 3-page paper offers a discussion of Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation. Bibliography lists 1 source.

Victor Vroom/Expectancy Theory

A 10 page research paper that examines Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory, which was formulated in 1964. This examination of Expectancy Theory, first of all, examines the nature and principles of this management model and then investigates, via available literature, how this theory works in the real world, who is using it and to what purposes. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

Motivation And Employee Performance

A 19 page paper that begins by providing definitions of motivation and job performance. The writer explains and describes several motivation theories including: Taylor's scientific model, McGregor's theories, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's Two-Factor theory, McClelland's need for achievement, Vroom's expectancy theory and reinforcement theory based on Skinner's work. The writer describes how these theories are applicable to the work environment. Certain statistical data are included, as reported in the literature. The author also comments on the insights managers may gain from understanding these theories. Bibliography lists 25 sources.

Human Motivation

A 4 page paper that looks at three specific topics within the vast field of human motivation. First, biological, learned and cognitive motivation theory are discussed in relation to Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory; then, Sternberg's Triangular Love theory is discussed. Finally, Seligman's ABCDE method for changing attributes with the goal of becoming more optimistic and thus, happier is described. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

Case Study: Building A Motivated And Committed Workforce

This 31 page paper first provides a 3 page research proposal for the study and then a 28 page paper that presents a case study of motivation in a travel agency. The paper begins with a Table of Contents and an Executive Summary. The Introduction provides background information on the company being studied and includes the company's goals: decrease turnover, increase employee motivation and increase revenues. The literature review proceeds a comprehensive explanation and discussion of theories of motivation. These include expectancy theory, needs hierarchy, reinforcement, goal theory and others. The next section explains the methodology for the case study – observation and employee surveys, which is followed by the results of the surveys. The writer then discuses the results and makes several recommendations based on the survey responses and the literature review. 4 Appendices are included. Bibliography lists 11 sources.


This 6-page paper discusses the goal-setting and expectancy theories of motivation and how they differ and are simliar with one another. Bibliography lists 2 sources.


This 3-page paper compares and contrasts expectancy theory with that of intrinsic motivation. Bibliography lists 2 sources.


This 3-page paper discusses how theories of motivation can be applied to the workplace. Some theories of motivation discussed include Maslov's heirarchy, Vroom's expetectancy theory and Herzberg's two stage theory of motivation. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

Motivational Techniques for Elementary School Students

A 12 page paper discussing theory and technique underlying both students' intrinsic motivation and the extrinsic factors of motivation supplied by the teacher and peers. Finally, research has shown what seasoned teachers have known for years—only the students remaining active and involved will retain sufficient levels of intrinsic motivation for enhancing their learning activities. It is essential that teachers maintain an atmosphere of creative expectancy rather than encouraging only learning by rote in the elementary years, particularly for the gifted student. While most students' interest in school subjects wanes with age, allowing a gifted student to languish in boredom ahead of his classmates almost assures losing that student far too early in his age progression. Bibliography lists 23 sources.

Job Enrichment

A 9 page paper that discusses the theory of job enrichment as a motivational technique. In the 1960s, Frederick Herzberg offered a two factor theory of motivation: hygiene and motivation. Job enrichment is one of the strategies that fall under the motivation factor. This essay discusses the principles and premises of job enrichment and offers some specific strategies that can be used to enrich jobs. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

Expectancy Theory: A Tutorial

A 5 page paper. The writer provides additional suggestions to the student for writing this type of paper, which is one in which a theory is discussed and then applied. Vroom's expectancy theory is explained. The theory is then demonstrated through the actions an owner of a small company takes in establishing an exceptional work environment. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Expectancy Violation Theory

A 6 page research paper that examines Expectancy Violation Theory, by first of all, offering an overview of this communications model. Then, several examples of how this theory has been used in communications research are described, and the paper concludes with discussion of the practicality of this theory for evaluating everyday communication situations, using examples from cinema, which illustrate the models utility. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Should Employers Offer Uniform Remuneration Packages?

This 3 page paper considers the concept of a uniform remuneration package, looking at the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing uniform pay strategies as well as individualized pay strategies in the context of various theories, such as expectancy theory and equity theory. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

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Chapter One:  Hypothesis

The hypothesis section of any thesis or dissertation generally sets up the "problem" to ...
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Chapter Two:  Literature Review

Chapter 2, known as the Literature Review, is where most of a dissertation's sources ...
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Chapter Three:  Methodology

The layout of a dissertation's methodology section varies greatly depending upon the type of ...
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Chapter Four:  Discussion

In Chapter 4, the "Discussion" section, students must perform a critical analysis of their study's ...
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Chapter Five:  Conclusions

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Correct use of the APA style for the in-text citing of sources is often crucial to ...
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